Political History

Djibouti July 1991

Somali Peace and Reconciliation Conference

Farole was part of the Somali Peace and Reconciliation Conference as a member of the Technical Committee to draft a peace deal within six months of the ouster of former Somali President Mohamed Siyad Barre’s regime. Farole was interested in bringing together warring armed groups and to reinstate the failed Somali nation-state. The efforts at this conference produced an Interim Government led by Ali Mahdi Mohamed.

Ethiopia December 1993

Humanitarian Conference on Somalia

Farole as the head of the Nugal Regional Council (established under the auspices of the UN) attended the United Nations sponsored humanitarian conference for Somalia, held in Addis Ababa. In this Conference he worked to insure humanitarian aid for war and drought victims and assistance to stable regions of Somalia to insure they do not become new crisis zones.

Djibouti, Arta 2000

Somali Peace and Reconciliation Conference

Farole, given the efforts of the last decade, attended the Arta Conference of 2000, a major attempt at final reconciliation. This was the second conference sponsored by the Djibouti Government. It produced another interim government (Transitional National Government – TNG) led by Abdiqasim Salam Hassan. Although Puntland and Somaliland administration boycotted the conference, this time no faction leaders including Mogadishu’s ex-warlords attended.

Farole at the Somali Peace and Reconciliation Conference, Kenya 2002
Kenya 2002 – 2004

Somali Peace and Reconciliation Conference

After twelve years of working towards peace and reconciliation efforts, Farole as the Finance Minister of Puntland, attended the Kenya Conference. These efforts produced Transitional Federal Charter and established Transitional Federal Government (TFG). It paved the path for Somalia to adopt a federal system of government. As it is now known, Federalism reinstated the decentralisation system of future Somali government; the principal of regional autonomy was enshrined in the July 1991 agreement signed at the first peace conference in Djibouti. This conference was inclusive of all Somali administrations and factions (except Somaliland).

Puntland State 1998

Establishment of Puntland State of Somalia

  • Farole was one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State
  • Member of the 6-person Technical Committee tasked with the drafting the Provisional Charter of Puntland
  • Farole re-called from overseas (Australia) to participate at the National Reconciliation Conference, which was supposed to be held within Somalia (Bossaso) in 1997; however, this conference collapsed before it was held
  • After 8 years of fruitless conferences, Puntland State of Somalia was established in 1998, pending the formation of a Federal Somalia in the future
Puntland State 2002 – 2006

Cabinet Minister

  • Farole served as Puntland Minister of Finance and Puntland Minister of Planning & International Relations
  • As Finance Minister, the state budget more than tripled
  • As Planning and International Cooperation Minister, Puntland produced the first-ever Five-Year Development Plan and the second one was produced in 2013
Puntland State 2009 – 2014

Puntland State Presidency

Farole was elected as president of Puntland State January 8, 2009. His first day in office Farole introduced his signature five year plan. During his presidency Farole accomplished his plan which included fiscal and finance reform, resource and infrastructure development, judiciary and security reform, social development and democratisation reform. Some of the major reforms understated by his administration included:


Fiscal Reforms & Public Finance Management

  • Reviewed government fiscal policy by introducing a new improved budget
  • Increased public servant remuneration
  • Tackled soaring inflation, caused by printing new counterfeit banknotes, thus stabilising the exchange value
  • Launched public finance management system

Resource and Infrastructure Development

  • A joint venture of Canadian and Australian companies was licensed for Dharoor Valley Block, drilling two exploratory wells commencing January 2012, the first oil project in Somalia, since Western oil majors declared force majeure and withdrew from Somalia operations in 1991, after the Somali state collapsed
  • Dredged Bossaso port to its original depth
  • Friendly countries endowed redevelopment of Bossaso and Garowe airports as well as resealing of Galkaio -Garowe highway
  • Tarmac roads were also built in the major urban centre

Courts and Prisons

  • New courts established and court personnel recruited
  • Judiciary budget increased by 400%
  • New and modern prisons were built
  • New custodian training academy established
  • New custodian corp was built
  • Additional prison guards were recruited and trained
  • New Police Headquarters and Police Stations were built

Counter-Terrorism and Anti-Piracy Campaigns

  • New anti-piracy and anti-terrorism laws introduced (2010), as terrorism and piracy were at their peak in Puntland in 2009, when President Farole was elected
  • August-October 2010 – Galgala Offensive – Puntland troops stormed Al Shabaab insurgent hideouts in Galgala Mountains (part of Golis Mountain Range of northern Somalia)
  • Increased counter-terrorism measures including law enforcement capacity, educational promotions and cooperation between Puntland Government and Islamic clerics
  • Arrested and took terrorism suspects to court of law
  • Security forces, including Intelligence Services, where re-organised and trained. Puntland anti-terrorist unit (PSF) were regulated and reformed
  • Puntland pioneered establishment of Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) with the support of a friendly country. Its personnel consisted of local recruits, that were trained to provide maritime security, protect country’s maritime resources, fight and disrupt pirates movements along Puntland coastline and ultimately eradicate piracy crimes from Puntland territory. The PMPF was successful in safely rescuing the 22 crew of Panama-flagged MV Iceberg 1, in December 2012, after almost 3 years in captivity. It also detained a North Korean MV Daesan in the same year, accused of dumping toxic waste in Somali waters. As a result, maritime piracy was almost eradicated in Puntland. The forces also instrumental in providing humanitarian logistical support to Puntland victims of drought as well as the tropical cyclone buttered communities in November 2013


  • Public health facilities, such as 3 hospitals were upgraded
  • One new health centre was created in Bossaso
  • Smaller health centres including MCH centers were created in all the rural areas
  • New healthcare workers were recruited and trained
  • Intensive vaccination campaigns implemented (including Child Health Days)


  • Previously unregulated state curriculum was unified
  • More schools were established and teachers recruited and trained
  • Uniform exams implemented in Puntland for the first time
  • Puntland graduate certificates recognised in more countries
  • Over 500 Puntland students gained access to universities in Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, Malaysia and Turkey

Social Welfare

  • Puntland Agency for Social Welfare (PASWE) was established in May 2009, the first organisation of its kind in Somali history

Democratisation Program

  • Democratisation measures were introduced in 2009, with state’s revised Draft Constitution passed by the Puntland Parliament (June 2009) to implement a multi-party political system in Puntland
  • Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission (TPEC) was established in July 2011.
  • Political Association Law, the Referendum Act, the District Elections Law were also passed as a precondition to introduce a multi-party political system (2011-2012)
  • On 15 April 2012, Puntland Constitutional Convention, led by the TPEC, was officially inaugurated in Garowe and the new State Constitution was ratified by nearly 500 delegates from all Puntland constituencies, in the presence of representatives of civil societies, titled elders, foreign ambassadors and TFG Deputy Prime Minister
  • Presided over peaceful election and smooth transition of power in January 2014, after losing parliamentary election by a single vote (33 v. 32 votes) on January 8, 2014

Ending the transition in Somalia

  • Puntland cooperated with other Somali regional entities to strengthen inter-regional relations, such as Ahlu Sunna Waljama’a (ASWJ) and Galmudug administration
  • Puntland signed an accord with Galmudug (February 2011) on security and social matters
  • In September 2011, the Roadmap to End the Transition in Somalia was signed in Mogadishu by TFG leadership, Puntland, ASWJ and Galmudug
  • In February 2012, Puntland successfully hosted the Second National Consultative Constitutional Conference (Garowe II Conference), participated by TFG leaders, ASWJ and Galmudug, in Garowe to discuss post-transition arrangements in relation to the end of the TFG’s mandate in August 2012. After extensive deliberations attended by regional actors and other international observers, the Consultative Constitutional Conference ended in a signed agreement known as Garowe Principles II. It was also agreed that a bicameral parliament be formed before the end of the TFG mandate (which was due to expire August 2012
  • On 22 June 2012, leaders of TFG, Puntland, ASWJ and Galmudug signed a Draft Constitution after months of deliberations and negotiations. The new Draft Constitution ratified by the 800-delegate National Constituent Assembly in Mogadishu on 1st August 2012, rendering the Provisional Federal Constitution was the legally binding law of the land (to date)